The recently developed 3D graphic statics (3DGS) lacks a rigorous mathematical definition relating the geometrical and topological properties of the reciprocal polyhedral diagrams as well as a precise method for the geometric construction of these diagrams. This research provides a fundamental algebraic formulation for 3DGS by developing equilibrium equations around the edges of the primal diagram and satisfying the equations by the closeness of the polygons constructed by the edges of the corresponding faces in the dual/reciprocal diagram. The research provides multiple numerical methods for solving the equilibrium equations and explains the advantage of using each technique. The approach of this research can be used for compression-and-tension combined form-finding and analysis as it allows constructing both the form and force diagram based on the interpretation of the input diagram. Besides, the research expands on the geometric/static degrees of (in)determinacies of the diagrams using the algebraic formulation and shows how these properties can be modified for the constrained manipulation of the polyhedrons in an interactive environment without breaking the reciprocity between the two.